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A

A, AN

Use the article a before consonant sounds. Use the article an before vowel sounds.

  • a historic event (not an historic)
  • an honor (h is silent)
  • an energy crisis, a united front
  • an 1840s plantation

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase used in place of the whole (e.g., UVA for The University of Virginia). An acronym is a word formed from the initial letter or letters of each of the successive parts or major parts of a compound term (e.g., radar for radio detecting and ranging).

Unless a term is used repeatedly or space is at a premium in a chart or table, there is no reason to abbreviate most words. Choose a short form (such as University in place of The University of Virginia) rather than an abbreviation, unless the abbreviation is widely used and understood (such as UVA).

Consider whether the acronym or abbreviation is a replacement for a previous full name. For example, JVC (an abbreviation) was once Japan Victor Corporation, but JVC is now its official name. Similarly, RISE (an acronym and thus pronounced like the word rise) once stood for Rural Infant Stimulation Environment, but the program is now simply RISE. Acronyms and some common abbreviations do not require periods. Examples include FBI, CIA, IRS, and ZIP code.

ACT, SAT, LSAT, GMAT, GRE, MAT, MCAT, and other entrance examination titles usually don't need to be spelled out, even on first reference. Use Arabic numerals in constructions such as SAT-1.

ACADEMIC DEGREES

When referring to degrees granted by the College, it is an associate degree, bachelor’s degree and master’s degree in lowercase.

The University conferred 600 bachelor’s degrees and 900 master’s degrees.

In references to degrees, the word “degree” is never capitalized.

She earned her master of music degree. Capitalize names or abbreviations of academic degrees and honors following a personal name.

  • Jim Smith, Doctor of Law
  • Susan Brown, MD
  • James Trillburn, Woodrow Wilson Fellow

When referring to bachelor of arts, bachelor of science, master of arts and master of science, within body copy all are lowercase as well. The discipline in which the degree was earned, unless it is a proper noun, also remains lowercase.

  • an associate degree in mathematics;
  • bachelor of science degree in biology,
  • bachelor’s degree in English,
  • master’s degree in fine arts.

When referring to an individual with a doctorate, the first reference should be John Smith, Ph.D. and then Smith (last name only) in later references. See doctor.

When referring to abbreviated degrees, be sure to use periods after all the letters:

If you prefer to abbreviate degrees, be sure to use periods after all the letters.

  •  B.A., M.S., Ph.D., M.S.I.A., (with the exception of MBA)

 When referencing degrees:

  • associate in arts
  • associate in science
  • associate in applied science
  • bachelor of arts
  • bachelor of science
  • bachelor of science in nursing
  • bachelor of business administration
  • certificate
  • diploma
  • master of arts
  • master of science
  • master of science in nursing
  • master of business administration
  • master of public health
  • master of applied computer science

ABBREVIATIONS

use periods as follows:

  • A.A. for associate in arts
  • A.S. associate in science
  • A.A.S. associate in applied science
  • B.A. for bachelor of arts
  • B.S. for bachelor of science
  • B.S.N. for bachelor of science in nursing
  • B.B.A. for bachelor of business administration
  • C for certificate
  • D for diploma
  • M.A. for master of arts
  • M.S. for master of science
  • M.S.N. for master of science in nursing
  • MBA for master of business administration
  • M.P.A. master of public administration
  • M.P.H. for master of public health
  • M.A.C.S. for master of applied computer science

ACADEMIC HONORS

Cum laude, magna cum laude, summa cum laude, and with distinction receive no special treatment in running copy:

  • She graduated magna cum laude.

ADDRESSES

  • KCTCS/College
  • Name Building Abbreviation (TKC) and Floor number
  • Street number and name
  • City, State, ZIP

Use numerical figures for numbered street names: 9th Street NOT Ninth Street. For streets with directional modifiers, such as 1st Avenue North and 21st Street South, the direction should follow "street," "avenue," etc.

  • The Administration Building is on 20th Street South NOT South 20th Street.

The street number and name should not appear in all capital letters.

  • KCTCS/College Name
  • Building A, 12th Floor
  • 2000 6th Avenue South
  • Birmingham, AL 35233

ACADEMIC DEPARTMENTS

When including the formal title of an office or department, capitalize names of departments, schools, offices, organizations, committees, societies, institutes, centers, boards, etc. Lowercase when not referenced in full.

  • Jane Doe, chair of the Department of English, gave the opening comments.
  • She has been chair of the history department since 1998.
  • The Office of Student Affairs is located in the Warde Academic Center.

Be careful when referring to offices that are of or for.

  • Office for University Mission and Heritage, Office of Campus Life.

ACADEMIC TITLES

Capitalize and spell out formal titles such as chancellor, director, etc., when they precede a name. Lowercase elsewhere.

  • According to System Director of Marketing Suzy Smith
  • According to Suzy Smith, KCTCS director of marketing
  • Alison Smith, Ph.D., spoke at the ceremony about her research. Smith said she had been working on the project for more than three years.
  • President Sherman Johnson spoke at the college commencement. President Johnson had many kind words to say.

ACT

Acceptable on first reference. Do not use periods. Always capitalized.

ACTING PRESIDENT

Serving temporarily, esp. as a substitute during another's absence; not permanent; temporary. Can interview for permanent position.

  • Dr. Slone is will serve as acting president until the position is filled.

ADJUNCT

An adjunct professor has a temporary faculty appointment. Lowercase. See part-time.

ADMISSION, ADMITTANCE

Use "admittance" when referring to physical entry to a specific place.

  • There was no admittance to South Hall.

Use "admission" when referring to figurative entry or the right or privilege of participation.

  • Admission of evidence, admission to a society, the price of admission to Bartow Arena.

ADVISER, ADVISOR

Either spelling is acceptable as long as all spellings are consistent.

AFFECT, EFFECT

Each is a verb and a noun. In practice, however, "affect" is used most often as a verb and usually means to influence or change.

  • Many drugs affect the nervous system.

"Affect" as a verb can also mean to feign or simulate.

  • He affected poor grades to gain sympathy.

When used as a noun, "affect" means a feeling or emotion (as distinguished from thought or action) and is confined to psychology.

"Effect" is used most often as a noun and means a result or outcome.

  • Many drugs have serious effects on the nervous system. His complaints had no effect on the dean.

When used as a verb, "effect" means to cause or bring about.

  • To effect change in the patient's condition, physicians had to use drugs.

AFTERWARD

One word. Not afterwards.

AID/AIDE

Aid is assistance. An aide is someone who serves as an assistant.

ALL RIGHT

Never alright. Hyphenate only as a unit modifier:

  • He is an all-right athlete.

ALLUDE, ELUDE

To "allude" is to make an indirect reference to something. To "elude" someone or something is to avoid, evade, or escape from the person or thing.

ALMA MATER

Lowercase when referring to the school or university one attended. Do not italicize.

A LOT

Two words. Not alot.

ALREADY, ALL READY

"Already" means having occurred; "all ready" means prepared.

ALTHOUGH, THOUGH

These are interchangeable. "Although" is most often the first word of a concessive clause: Although she was tired, she accepted. "Though" does not always come first: Tired though she was, she accepted. "Though" is used more commonly in linking single words or phrases: wiser though poorer.

ALUMNUS, ALUMNI, ALUMNA, ALUMNAE

Use alumnus (alumni in the plural) when referring to a man who has attended a school.

Use alumna (alumnae in the plural) for similar references to a woman.

Use alumni when referring to a group of men and women.

Sometimes, to avoid any suggestion of sexism, both terms are used for mixed groups:

  • the alumni/alumnae of Indiana University or the alumni and alumnae of Indiana University.
alumni/alumnae of Indiana University the alumni and alumnae of Indiana University.

When writing about alumni, the graduation year should always be noted.

  • John Smith ’79; Mary Jane Smith ’65.

Please note that graduation year is included with the individual’s name and that the apostrophe faces away from the year of graduation.

A.M., P.M.

Abbreviation for "ante meridiem" or "before noon." Lowercase and use the periods. Do not use AM, PM or am, pm. Use noon or midnight instead of 12 p.m. or 12 a.m. Do not use 12 noon or 12 midnight.

AMPERSAND

Spell out and in most instances. Reserve the ampersand for use as a design element; in charts and other places where space is at a premium; and when part of a company's formal name.

ANNUAL

Do not use the term first annual. An event cannot be described as annual until it has been held for at least two successive years.

ANYBODY, ANY BODY, ANYONE, ANY ONE

Use "anybody" or "anyone" (one word) when making an indefinite reference: Anyone can do it. Use "any body" or "any one" (two words) when emphasizing or singling out one element of a group: Any one of them can do it.

APOSTROPHE

Use apostrophes to show possession or in contractions: Wendy's dog. It's time for class to begin. Do not use an apostrophe when forming plurals of dates or acronyms: 1890s, 1920s, 1990s, M.D.s, Ph.D.s.

When a proper name or title is in italic type, its possessive ending should be in unitalicized type.

  • The Taming of the Shrew's opening performance.
  • master's degree in journalism
  • bachelor's degree in television

AS WELL AS

Avoid overusing as well as in place of and; the phrase as well as has the sense of "too" or "also," rather than simply "and."

@

The "at sign" (@) must be included in all e-mail addresses.

AUTUMN, AUTUMN QUARTER

Lowercase references to seasons and academic periods.

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B

BACCALAUREATE

Use the less formal bachelor's degree, or bachelor's. In some cases, such as documents for Commencement, use the more formal baccalaureate.

BACKWARD

One word. Not backwards.

BELOW/LESS THAN

Use less than, not below, when something is quantifiable.

  • The total cost was less than $5,000, not below $5,000.

BIMONTHLY

Means every other month; semimonthly means two times a month.

BLACKS

The term "blacks" is accepted according to the Associated Press Stylebook. "African American" is acceptable when referring to people of African descent. See race.

BOARD OF REGENTS

Capitalize when using full name. Lowercase when not using full name. Do not capitalize “board” when used alone or in second reference.

  • The KCTCS Board of Regents will meet in the conference room.
  • The board of regents will meet today. The board members agreed.

BOOKSTORE

One word.

 

C

CABINET

Capitalize references to a specific body of advisers heading executive departments. Otherwise lowercase when used alone.

  • The President’s Cabinet will meet today.
  • The cabinet will make a decision next week.

CAMPUS

Capitalize when using full or formal name. Lowercase when not using full or formal name. Also lowercase “north campus,” “south campus,” etc.

  • The Bristol Bay Campus is in Dillingham.
  • The campus was teeming with students on the first day of class.

CAMPUSWIDE

One word. Do not hyphenate.

CAN, MAY

Use "can" to indicate the ability to do something.

  • The sprinter can run a mile in less than four minutes.

Use "may" to indicate a requesting or granting of permission.

  • May I have a bite of your sandwich?

Also use "may" to indicate possibility.

  • It may snow tonight.

CAPITAL, CAPITOL

Use capital (lowercase) when referring to the city where a seat of government is located, the case of a letter, or a budget or monetary reference. Use Capitol (capitalized) when referring to a building in which a state or federal legislative body meets.

  • Frankfort is the capital of Kentucky.
  • Many consider the Capitol too small and want to build a new one.

CAPITALIZATION

A general rule is that official names are capitalized; unofficial, informal, shortened, or generic names aren’t. This rule applies to names of offices, buildings, schools, departments, programs, centers, institutes, etc. Phrases such as “the center,” “the institute,” “the college,” or “the museum” are not capitalized.

  • The Office of the Registrar; the registrar’s office; the registrar;
  • Department of English, English department
  • Office of Admissions, admissions office

Lowercase the word “university” when it is used in a generic sense.

  • The university is nationally recognized.

Capitalize official names of bulletins, forms, conventions, conferences, symposia, etc.

  • Student Handbook
  • a Financial Aid Transcript

Capitalize official course titles (except for articles, prepositions, and conjunctions), whether or not the course number is used. See Course Titles.

  • E201 Intro to Microeconomics
  • S250 Graphic Design I
  • Professor McVee is teaching Traditional Music this spring

Do not capitalize the common names of semesters, terms, academic sessions, or periods (such as fall semester, registration, orientation, schedule pickup). If a semester or term is followed by a specific year, use capitalization (e.g., Fall Semester 2003).

  • PROPER NOUNS: Capitalize nouns that name a specific person, place or thing.
  • DERIVATIVES: Capitalize words that are derived from a proper noun and still depend on it for their meaning: English, French, Shakespearean, but not french fries, pasteurize or venetian blind.
  • SENTENCES: Capitalize the first word of each sentence.
  • COMPOSITIONS: Capitalize the principal words in the names of books, movies, plays, songs, television shows, etc.
  • TITLES: Capitalize formal titles when used before a name. Lowercase formal titles when used alone or after a name. Lowercase all terms that are job descriptions rather than formal titles. Lucy Smith is an assistant professor/counselor at MCTC.

CATALOG

Preferred over catalogue.

CERTIFICATES AND FORMS

The following guidelines apply to the titles of academic and professional certificates (as in Class AA Professional Certificate); visas; government forms; specialized forms, such as financial aid forms; and other documents referred to by name.

Terms that are generally descriptive-such as application for admission, declaration of intent, or application for admission to candidacy-should not be capitalized.

Capitalize the first word and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs in the title of the form:

  • Class AA Certificate, but Class AA certification
  • Class A Professional Certificate
  • the "A" Certification in School Psychometry
  • Form I-20AB Certificate of Eligibility
  • Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)

When a number is part of a form's title, use the numeral and omit any punctuation:

  • Form 1040EZ
  • Form 2A

CHAIRMAN, CHAIRWOMAN

Chairperson or chair is preferred: department chair. See gender.

CHAIRS AND PROFESSORSHIPS

Capitalize the titles of named chairs and professorships whether used alone or after an individual’s name.

  • KCTCS Chair Sam Richards spoke to the volunteers.
  • Sam Richards is Chair of the committee.

CHAMPIONSHIP

Capitalize when part of the complete title.

  • UVA won the NCAA Rifle Championship again this year.
  • John Smith won the national championship at the NCAA National Skiing Championship.

CITY, STATE

When used in text, a comma should follow both the city and the state.

CLASS OF

Uppercase when used before the date in reference to a specific class.

  • The Class of 1988 will hold its 20-year reunion this fall.
  • The 1988 class will hold its 20-year reunion this fall.

CLASSIFICATION, STUDENT

Don't capitalize freshman, sophomore, junior, senior, graduate, postgraduate, postdoctoral, nondegree, or any similar designation, unless it is part of a title, a headline, or the official name of an organization. Use freshman when writing of one first-year student, freshmen when writing of more than one. Use freshman as a modifier:

  • EN 101 is generally considered a freshman course.
  • She lives in the freshman dorm, with 400 other freshmen.

COLLEGE

Capitalize the full, proper name of a college. Lowercase shortened or informal versions.

  • Dartmouth College
  • the College of Engineering
  • the engineering college

Retain capitalization if the full name is dropped, but still referenced.

  • Dartmouth College is a great school. The College will have open house this week.

COLLEGE NAME

  • Ashland Community and Technical College (ACTC)
  • Big Sandy Community and Technical College (BSCTC)
  • Bluegrass Community and Technical College (BCTC)
  • Bowling Green Technical College (BGTC)
  • Elizabethtown Community and Technical College (ECTC)
  • Gateway Community and Technical College (GCTC)
  • Hazard Community and Technical College (HCTC)
  • Henderson Community College (HCC)
  • Hopkinsville Community College (HCC)
  • Jefferson Community and Technical College (JCTC)
  • Madisonville Community College (MCC)
  • Maysville Community and Technical College (MCTC)
  • Owensboro Community and Technical College (OCTC)
  • Somerset Community College (SCC)
  • Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College (SKCTC)
  • West Kentucky Community and Technical College (WKCTC)

COLLEGEWIDE

One word. Do not hyphenate.

COMMAS

If items in the series contain commas themselves, use semicolons between all items.

  • The letters she wrote are dated August 7, 1918; May 12, 1935; and January 4, 1965.

When following a person’s name, qualifiers such as Ph.D. and M.D. are preceded by a comma. A second comma follows the qualifier in running text.

  • Ross Dalbey, Ph.D.
  • The opening remarks by Ross Dalbey, Ph.D., set the tone for the conference.

However, qualifiers such as Jr., Sr., and III are not set off by commas.

  • Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Charles Smith III

Set off the year when using dates with commas on both sides if a day of the month precedes it.

  • January 29, 1996, is the deadline.
  • January 1996 is the deadline.

Set off a parenthetical (nonrestrictive) expression with commas on both sides. Note that states following cities are parenthetical and require commas before and after.

  • The study, it was believed, had been falsified.
  • The members of the class, generally speaking, were happy to be there.
  • They visited Springfield, Ohio, on their last trip.

Commas appear after, not before, an expression in parentheses (like this), and they always go inside quotation marks, except when a quotation mark indicates inches.

COMMENCEMENT

Lowercase when used to refer to commencement or convocation generally. Capitalize when followed by the specific year.

  • More than 2,000 people attended the BCTC commencement ceremonies.
  • MCTC celebrated Commencement 2006 in grand style.

COMMONWEALTH

Kentucky is one of four U.S. states that are legally commonwealths. The state's actual name is "the Commonwealth of Kentucky," capitalizing commonwealth. When the phrase "the Commonwealth" is used meaning Kentucky, commonwealth should also be capitalized. Lowercase in all other uses.

COMPACT DISC, COMPACT DISCS, CD, CDS

In many contexts, CD or CDs is appropriate in all references for compact disc. If it's likely your readers might read CD as certificate of deposit, however, spell out compact disc on first reference.

COMPASS

COMPASS is a computerized adaptive testing system that helps place students into appropriate mathematics, reading, and writing classes. Always capitalize.

COMPLEMENT

Something that completes or makes perfect.

  • A good wine is a complement to a good meal.

COMPLIMENT

An expression of praise, commendation, or admiration.

  • A sincere compliment boosts one's morale.

COMPOSITION TITLES

Capitalize titles of books, plays, presentations, etc., whether standing alone, in quotation marks, or in italics: "Health Policy in a Time of AIDS," a conference for health planners, was so successful that a follow-up conference has been scheduled. "A," "in," "of," and other junction words should be capitalized only at the beginning or end of a title: Smith presented "An Approach to Urban Revitalization" at the symposium.

Italicize titles of books, plays, television shows, motion pictures, journals, magazines, newspapers, newsletters, long poems published as books, and gallery and museum exhibitions. Underlining is appropriate when italics are not possible. When the text in which a title appears is already italicized, set the title in regular type (no italics). For shorter works (including newspaper articles, poems, etc.) and all other compositions, enclose the title in quotation marks.

COMPRISE

"Comprise" means to contain or include. Use in active voice.

  • KCTCS comprises 16 colleges, NOT KCTCS is comprised of 16 colleges.

COOPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAM, CO-OP

Co-op or Co-op Program is an acceptable second reference, but lowercase co-op when used as an adjective:

  • Her co-op experience was professionally and intellectually rewarding.

COSPONSOR, COCURRICULAR, COPAY

One word.

COURSE LOAD

Two words. Generally refers to the number of course hours recommended or allowable each semester.

COURSE NUMBERS AND TITLES

When a course number and title are given together, give the alpha symbol and number followed directly by the title. There is no intervening punctuation, nor should there be any abbreviation of words in the title.

  • ART 110 Drawing I
  • EE 350 Electromechanics
  • EN 398 Modernism I: The Cultural Context

When a course title is given without the course number, you may still uppercase the course title as long as it is the complete title. Do not use alpha symbols when speaking generally of a department or program's courses or of an academic discipline.

  • Students may count up to 18 hours in sociology, French, or political science toward the major.

When listing courses by number, repeat the alpha symbol with each number.

  • The required courses include EN 101, EN 205, and EN 209 or EN 210.

COURSE WORK

Two words. Generally refers to the courses taken for degree credit.

COWORKER

No hyphen.

CREDIT HOURS

Use numerals to refer to credit hours.

  • 3 credit hours

CURRENTLY, PRESENTLY

"Currently" means now; "presently" means in the very near future.

CURRICULUM

"Curricula" or "curriculums" in plural form.

CUTLINE

Photo caption. Use parentheses to denote the position of person(s) in a cutline. i.e. (l-r), (center), etc. If there are several people to identify in a photo name each one beginning at the left. If there are several people in more than one row, begin with the front row, left to right, then second row, left to right…until everyone is identified.

  • Harold Riker (center), director of university housing, shows Charlotte Evans (right) the new residence room.
  • From left to right: John Doe, Suzy Smith, etc.
  • Front row, left to right: John Doe, Suzy Smith, Jake Brown. Second row, left to right: Holly Smith, Harold Smith, etc.

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D

DATA

Data can be either a singular or plural noun and requires a singular or plural verb accordingly. See the AP Stylebook for further explanation.

  • The data is inaccurate.
  • The data have been carefully collected.

DATABASE

One word. The collection of all data used and produced by a computer program.

DATES

Spell out months when used alone or with the year only.

  • September 1991.

Abbreviate months—except for March, April, May, June, and July—when used as part of complete dates.

  • Sept. 1, 1991.

Never use a comma between month and year when a specific day is not mentioned.

  • April 1998.

The same is true for seasons

  • fall 1991.

A comma should follow the year when a specific date is mentioned in the middle of a sentence.

  • Feb. 8, 1990, was the date of the party.

Do not use "on" with dates unless its absence would lead to confusion.

  • The program ends December 15, NOT the program ends on December 15.

To indicate sequences or inclusive dates or times, use an en dash (-) instead of "to."

  • Apply here May 7-9, 8 a.m.-4 p.m.

Spell out numerical designations "first" through "ninth" and use numerals with letter suffixes for "10th" and above.

  • The 11th day of January, the first of June.

Do not use "st," "rd," or "th" with dates.

  • Oct. 14, NOT Oct. 14th: February 2, NOT February 2nd.

DAYS OF THE WEEK

Capitalize them. Do not abbreviate, except when needed in tabular format: Sun, Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat (three letters, without periods, to facilitate tabular composition).

DEAN

As with other titles, capitalize dean only when it precedes the individual's name or is part of another official title, and never when writing generally of the dean or a dean:

  • That's something for the dean to decide. I'll ask Dean Smith in the morning. dean's office
  • Office of the Dean

DEAN'S LIST

Capitalize when referring specifically to a college or university Dean's List; when describing a student's accomplishments in a more general sense, lowercase.

DECISION MAKING

Two words, adjective or noun.

DEPARTMENT

Department of History, history department, departments of English and history.

DIRECTIONS

Generally, lowercase north, northeast, south, western, etc. when used to indicate compass direction.

  • He drove south toward Montgomery.
  • Robert is from eastern Nebraska.

Capitalize directions when they designate regions or are part of proper names.

  • Alabama is in the South.
  • She went hiking in West Virginia.
  • the Gulf Coast, the Northern Hemisphere.

DIRECTOR

Lowercase unless part of a title preceding a person's name.

  • Director Sam Jones, BUT Sam Jones, director of the program.

DISABLED

Do not use this word as a primary adjective, as if a disability is a person's most important trait. Instead, use "people with disabilities," "people who are blind" or "people who are deaf." Avoid using altogether unless there is a compelling reason to use.

DOCTORAL, DOCTORATE

Doctoral is an adjective.

  • He entered the doctoral program in 1993.

Doctorate is the degree received.

  • She earned her doctorate in '85.

DOCTOR

When writing for a general audience (press releases, newspapers, external non-academic publications), use this abbreviation ONLY as a formal title for a person who has a doctor of medicine, dental science or veterinary medicine degree. For all others, use Ph.D. or the appropriate degree abbreviation. This is an effort to avoid confusion in a general population that associates "Dr." with hospitals more than academics.

DOLLARS

Always lowercase. Use numerical figures and the $ sign in all except casual references.

  • The book cost $4.
  • Dad, please give me a dollar.

Use either the dollar sign or the word "dollar."

  • $3 or 3 dollars, NOT $3 dollars.

A noun specifying an amount takes a singular verb.

  • He says $500,000 is what they want.

For amounts of more than $1 million, use the $ and numerals up to two decimal places.

  • He is worth $4.35 million.
  • He is worth exactly $4,234,234.

DONOVAN SCHOLARS

Do not use this term to refer to Senior Learners.

DOUBLE MAJOR (N.),DOUBLE-MAJOR (ADJ.)

DROP/ADD

Lowercase references to the drop/add procedure.

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E

ELICIT, ILLICIT

"Elicit" (verb) means to bring out or draw forth: Questions were designed to elicit straightforward responses. "Illicit" (adjective) means improper or illegal: an illicit love affair; illicit traffic in drugs.

E-MAIL

Always hyphenate. When placed at the beginning of a sentence, only the "E" should be capitalized. When placed in a headline, both "E" and "Mail" should be capitalized. Avoid breaking long e-mail addresses at the end of a line. Periods may be placed at the end of e-mail addresses.

  • info@kctcs.edu

EMERITUS

Emeritus is the singular, masculine form. For references to women, use emerita (singular) or emeritae (plural). Emeriti may serve as the plural for a group that is composed of men only or both men and women. Emeritus is lowercase in all forms (unless used before a name as a formal title).

  • professor emerita of art
  • professors emeriti
  • faculty emeriti

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Should be spelled out on first reference and then used as "ESL."

 

ENSURE, INSURE, ASSURE

Although these words are often used interchangeably, add an extra measure of clarity by making the following distinctions: Use ensure to mean guarantee.

  • To ensure each student the best chance for success, we offer the services outlined below.

Use insure when referring to insurance.

  • The famous pianist insured each of his hands for $1 million.

Use assure to suggest the removal of doubt or worries from a person's mind (as in reassurance).

  • She assured me Ms. Jones was an experienced editor.

ENTITLED

Use this word to mean a right to do or have something, not the title of a composition.

  • According to the rules, she was entitled to additional time on the test.
  • The speech, titled "A New America," was presented.

ETHNIC AND RACIAL REFERENCES

Use only when necessary to add required detail to text. Capitalize all proper names; lowercase designations of color. Compound proper nouns, such as African American, generally do not need a hyphen. However, when used as an adjective, such as African-American studies, hyphenate. See individual entries for specific references.

  • African-American student
  • Thai faculty members
  • black and white students

When referring to several different ethnic groups use the term “minorities.”

EVERYDAY, EVERY DAY

Use "everyday" as an adjective

  • Everyday low prices.

Use "Every day" is an adverb.

  • He goes to class every day.

EVERYONE, EVERY ONE

Use "everyone" to refer to all people: Everyone went to the football game. Use "every one" when referring to individual items: Every one of the buildings has been renovated.

EXTENSION AGENT

Uppercase Extension Agent when used as a title before a name; uppercase Extension but lowercase agent in other contexts.

  • Extension Agent Sharon Carrier
  • The meeting included all of Kentucky's Extension agents.

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F

FACEBOOK

Although the logo for this social networking site is written with a lowercase f, the name should be capitalized.

FACULTY

Lowercase "faculty" unless the word is part of a specific name or title.

  • One of the department’s faculty members was part of the Faculty Senate.

FALL SEMESTER

Lowercase.

  • Students will arrive for the fall semester on Sunday.

FAQ

This abbreviation for frequently asked questions is acceptable for Web usage but not for print publications.

FARTHER, FURTHER

Farther refers to linear distance, further to extent or degree.

FAX

Never FAX.

  • Please send this fax.
  • Fax this to them.

FEWER, LESS

In general, use "fewer" when referring to individual items: I had fewer than 50 one-dollar bills in my pocket. Use "less" when referring to bulk or quantity: I had less than $50 in my pocket.

FIRST-COME, FIRST-SERVED; FIRST COME, FIRST SERVED

The term gets hyphens when used as a modifier before a noun but no hyphens when used after a noun.

FIRST-TIME

Hyphenate when used as an adjective.

  • a first-time candidate.

FLIER, FLYER

A flyer or flier, also called a circular, handbill or leaflet, is a form of paper advertisement intended for wide distribution and typically posted or distributed in a public place.

FOLLOW-UP, FOLLOW UP

"Follow-up" can be used as a noun meaning the act or instance of following up: I have the follow-up on the patient. Follow-up can also be used as an adjective meaning relating to or being something that follows up: The follow-up report was lost in the mail. "Follow up" should be used as a verb meaning to pursue or maintain contact in an effort to take further action: The police follow up every possible lead.

FONTS

See the KCTCS Branding Guide for approved fonts.

FOREIGN STUDENTS

The phrase “international students” is preferred.

FRESHMAN, FRESHMEN

Use freshman when writing of one first-year student, freshmen when writing of more than one. Use freshman as a modifier:

  • EN 101 is generally considered a freshman course.
  • She lives in the freshman dorm, with 400 other freshmen.

FULL TIME/FULL-TIME

Hyphenate as an adjective before the noun; otherwise use two words.

  • He is a full-time worker.
  • He works full time in the office.

FUND RAISING, FUND-RAISING, FUND RAISER

Fund raiser is a noun (without hyphen).

  • Relay For Life is the nation’s largest fund raiser.

Fund-raiser is a person (with hyphen).

  • An income development manager is a fund-raiser.

Fund-raising is an adjective (with hyphen).

  • Relay For Life is a successful fund-raising event.

Fund raising is also a noun (without hyphen).

  • Fund raising is difficult.

Fundraising (one word) is NOT a word!

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G

GAY/LESBIAN

Acceptable as popular synonym for both male and female homosexuals (n. and adj.), although it is generally associated with males, while lesbian is the more common term for female homosexuals.

GENDER

Include all people in general references by substituting gender neutral words and phrases for male-biased, exclusionary words. Avoid using "man" or "woman" as a suffix or prefix. Use "person" instead, or change the construction of the sentence: chair INSTEAD of chairman, business executive INSTEAD of businessman. Use parallel grammar when referring to people by gender: his or her employer RATHER THAN his employer. When workable, change such singular nouns to plural nouns: their employers.

GENERAL ASSEMBLY

A legislative body. Persons who make or amend or repeal laws. Capitalize if part of the formal, proper name for the lawmaking body in the state. Retain the capital letters if the name of the state can be dropped, but lowercase the word “assembly” if it stands alone.

  • Kentucky General Assembly

GEOGRAPHIC TERMS AND NAMES

Lowercase north, south, east, and west and variations when they indicate direction. Capitalize north, south, east, west, and similar terms when they refer to regions.

  • We went north, then east, then south, and finally west.
  • He drove northwest for about 20 miles.
  • He is from the South; his wife is from the Northeast.

Capitalize the names of physiographic provinces and divisions:

  • Antarctica, Antarctic Circle
  • Appalachian Highlands
  • Continental Shelf
  • Coastal Plain

GOOD, WELL

"Good" is an adjective that means something is as it should be or is better than average: The soup smells good. The music sounds good. When used as an adjective, "well" means healthy. When used as an adverb, "well" means in a satisfactory manner or skillfully: The machine runs well. He did well on his entrance exam.

GOODBYE

One word.

GRADE POINT AVERAGE (GPA)

After first reference, GPA is an acceptable abbreviation, although in many contexts you may not need to use the long form at all; no periods are necessary. When giving a GPA, always use a decimal point and carry to at least one decimal place: 3.0, 2.2. Use all caps when abbreviated.

GRADES

In running text, give grades in quotation marks:

  • "A"
  • "B-"
  • "C+"
  • "Incomplete"
  • "Pass"
  • He earned a "B+" in that class.
  • A grade of "NC," or "No Credit," may be given in freshman English courses.

In tables and charts, omit the quotation marks, but retain capitalization. The modifier pass/fail is not treated specially:

  • It was a pass/fail course, in which I earned a grade of "Pass."
  • I took the course pass/fail.

GRADUATE

Lowercase when referring to the general status of "graduate."

GROUNDBREAKING

One word as adjective or noun.

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H

HEALTH CARE

Two words, no hyphen, both nouns and adjectives.

  • She has health care at the company where she works.

HISPANIC

Refers to people of Spanish or Spanish-and-Portuguese ancestry or Spanish-speaking persons of Latin American origin living in the United States. Use an individual's country of ancestry, such as Cuban American, if such designation is pertinent. See Latino.

HOME PAGE

Always two words.

HTTP://WWW.

Delete “http://www” in all web addresses. See Internet.

  • womensplace.kctcs.edu
  • osu.edu

I

INITIALS

Use periods and no spaces when an individual uses initials instead of a first name.

INSIDE

As a preposition, "inside" doesn't have to be followed by "of":

  • She remained inside the house.

IN-STATE, OUT-OF-STATE

Acceptable, but consider whether resident and nonresident would be more precise.

INSTRUCTOR

A non-tenure-track faculty rank.

INSURE, ENSURE

"Insure" means to establish a contract for insurance of some type; "ensure" means to guarantee.

INTERIM

Faculty or staff who temporarily fill a position for an undetermined period of time. Always lowercase:

  • interim Vice President Mark Robbins.

INTERMURAL/INTRAMURAL TEAMS

Intermural: Competitive teams from different institutions.

Intramural: Competitive teams within a single community or institution.

INTERNET

Always capitalize. "Internet" is preferred over "the Net." Do not use the http://www prefix. See http://.

INTRAMURAL TEAMS

Competitive teams within a single community or institution.

INTRANET

An internal Internet communication system

IT’S, ITS

It’s is a contraction for it is or it has: It’s up to you. It’s been a long time. Its is the possessive form of the neuter pronoun: The company lost its assets.

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J

JUNIOR, SENIOR

Omit the comma before and after Jr. and Sr.

  • John Smith Jr. is the son of John Smith Sr.

K

KENTUCKY COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE SYSTEM

KCTCS acceptable after first reference.

Ampersand (instead of AND) should only be used graphically on materials; NOT on news releases, correspondence, etc.

Can also be referred to as KCTCS office OR System office.

Never KCTCS System office.

KENTUCKY COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE SYSTEM PROGRAMS

KY WINS, Ready to Work, Workforce Solutions

L

LABORATORY

Spell out as part of an official name or in first reference. “Lab” is acceptable as a second reference.

LATINO/LATINA

Latino is preferred. See Hispanic.

LEGISLATURE

Capitalize when referring to the Kentucky Legislature. Retain capitalization on second reference, even when the state name is dropped if the reference is to a specific legislature.

  • The Legislature approved funding.

LIBERAL ARTS

Use a plural verb when referring to liberal arts. Use a singular verb when referring to the liberal arts program.

  • The liberal arts are essential for job placement in today's marketplace.
  • The liberal arts program is beneficial for all students.

LIKE/SUCH AS

As a general rule, such as precedes an example that represents a larger subject, whereas like indicates that two subjects are comparable:

  • Steve has recordings of many great jazz musicians such as Thelonious Monk and Miles Davis.
  • Steve wants to be a great jazz musician like Ben Webster and Lee Konitz.

Keep in mind that like excludes; such as, includes.

LOOSE/LOSE

Loose means free from anything that binds or restrains.

  • There are loose cats prowling around in alleyways at night.

Lose means to come to be without (something in one's possession or care), through accident, theft, etc., so that there is little or no prospect of recovery:

  • I sure hope I don’t lose my hat.

LONG TERM, LONG-TERM

Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier.

  • We will win in the long term.
  • He has a long-term assignment.

LONG TIME, LONGTIME

  • They have known each other a long time.
  • They are longtime friends.

LOWERCASE

One word.

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M

MAGAZINE TITLES

Capitalize the name and italicize. Lowercase magazine unless it is part of the publication’s formal title.

  • Time magazine.

MAJORS, PROGRAMS

Do not capitalize majors, programs, specializations, or concentrations of study, unless they are part of a designated degree:

  • She received a Bachelor of Arts in history. She majored in art.

MEANTIME, MEANWHILE

Each of these is a noun and an adverb, but "meantime" is more often a noun.

  • In the meantime, he waited.

"Meanwhile" is more commonly used as an adverb.

  • She went inside; meanwhile, he waited.

MEDIA, MEDIUM

Media is plural and takes a plural verb, whereas medium is singular. "Medias" is incorrect.

  • The media work hard for their money.
  • This medium is better than the rest.

M.D.

Words such as physician or surgeon are preferred. The abbreviation Dr. is acceptable when referring to doctors of medicine, dental science or veterinary science. See doctor.

MIDNIGHT

Use midnight instead of 12 a.m. Do not use 12 midnight. See a.m./p.m.

MINORITY

People or person of color is preferred.

MONTHS

Capitalize the names of months in all uses. When a month is used with a specific date, abbreviate only "Jan.," "Feb.," "Aug.," "Sept.," "Oct.," "Nov.," and "Dec." Spell out all other months. Spell out months when used alone or with a year: February, February 1998. When a phrase includes only a month and a year, do not separate them with commas: January 1972 was a cold month. When a month, day, and year appear in the middle of a phrase, set off the year with commas:

  • Feb. 14, 1989, was the target date.

MOUNT

 Spell it out.

  • Mount Sterling

MULTICULTURAL

One word. Do not hyphenate.

MYSPACE

One word with a capital S in the middle.

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N

NAMES

Proper names should not be translated in another language.

NATIVE AMERICAN

Native American is preferred, but American Indian is also acceptable.

NET

An acceptable abbreviation for Internet.

NEWSPAPER NAMES

Capitalize “the” in a newspaper’s name if that is the way the publication prefers to be known. Do not place the name in quotes or italics.

  • Chicago Tribune, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal.

NONCREDIT

One Word.

NONPROFIT

One Word.

NONSEXIST LANGUAGE

Avoid words and usage that reinforce sexist stereotypes. Do not use “he” as an all-inclusive pronoun. “He or she” can be used, but the following solutions are preferable:

  • Change the subject to the plural and use “they,” making sure there is verb/noun agreement.
  • Change the singular third-person reference (he/she) to the second person (you).
  • Use neutral words to replace personal pronouns (such as “one” or “several”).
  • Repeat the noun or use a synonym.
  • Revise the sentence to eliminate the pronoun altogether, personalize the reference. Use actual name and title.

NONTRADITIONAL

One Word.

NOON

Use noon or 12 p.m. Never 12 noon. See a.m./p.m.

NUMBERS

Spell out numbers at the beginning of sentences. There is one exception—numerals that identify a calendar year: 1997 was a banner year for KCTCS. Spell out whole numbers below 10 except when used in statistical data. Use figures for 10 and above.

  • They had 10 dogs.

When large numbers ending in "y" must be spelled out, use a hyphen to connect them to other words: twenty-one, forty-five. Do not use commas between separate words that are part of one number: one hundred forty-five. When numbers modify like elements and are grouped within a sentence or series of related sentences, use numerals for all numbers if any one of the numbers is 10 or more.

  • The average number of graduates per semester rose from 7 to 12.

Use numerals for parts of a book.

  • This is located in Chapter 4.

With "o'clock," spell out the time; when using a.m. or p.m., use numerals. Avoid redundancy.

  • 8:00 p.m., NOT 8:00 p.m. in the evening.

Spell out and lowercase centuries: the nineteenth century. When referring to decades, either spell them out or use a full set of numerals followed by "s" with no apostrophe.

  • The thirties OR the 1930s, NOT the 30’s or the 1930's.

Use numerals when referring to credit hours.

  • The course carries 3 hours of credit.

In citing percentages, use the figure followed by "percent."

  • 12 percent.

When referring to millions of dollars, always use the figure followed by "million."

  • $4 million.

When referring to millions of entities other than dollars, spell out whole numbers below 10 (except in statistical data) and use figures for 10 and above.

  • two million volumes, 12 million people.

For ages, spell out numbers below 10.

  • a two-year-old child, a student in her 30s.

For ordinals (first, second, third), use numbers for 10 and above.

  • 29th, 102nd, fifth, seventh.

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O

OFFICE OF THE DEAN

Not the dean's office.

OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT

Not the president’s office.

OFFLINE

One word, no hyphenation.

OK, OK'D, OK'ING, OKS

Do not use "okay." Avoid use of all forms in formal writing.

ON CAMPUS, ON-CAMPUS

When used as a modifier, either term must be hyphenated. When campus is used as a noun, drop the hyphen.

  • Students who live on campus also find it affordable.
  • Off-campus apartments range in cost from $350 to $1,100 per month.
  • That building is located just off campus on Queen City Avenue.

ONGOING

One word.

ONLINE

One word, no hyphenation.

ORIENTATION

Do not capitalize when used in a general sense or on second reference. Capitalize only when part of the name of an event or program.

Lowercase this word when referring to the student orientation program.

OVER, MORE THAN

"Over" refers to spatial relationships: The shelf is over my head. "More than" refers to numbers or amounts.

  • The group raised more than $60. More than 50 people attended, NOT Over 50 people attended.

 

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P

PART TIME

Hyphenate only when used as an adjective immediately before a noun.

  • Larry works in the office part time.
  • Leroy is a part-time landscape architect.

PERCENT

Spelling out percent is preferred, although % may be used if space is needed. Use numerals in front of percent, unless starting a sentence.

  • They asked 50 percent of the students.
  • One percent of the faculty attended.

P.M., A.M.

Abbreviation for "post meridiem" or "after mid-day." Lowercase and use the periods. Do not use AM, PM or am, pm. Use noon or midnight instead of 12 p.m. or 12 a.m. Do not use 12 noon or 12 midnight.

POSTBACCALAUREATE

One word, no hyphen.

POSTDOCTORAL

One word, no hyphen.

PRESIDENT

Capitalize when preceding a name. Lowercase in all other uses. Never abbreviate.

  • The president met with the board on Thursday.
  • The board met with President Michael B. McCall. President McCall reported on the new programs.

When referring to President McCall, always use "president" when preceding his name on the first reference. All other references should be Dr. McCall.

PRESIDENT’S LEADERSHIP TEAM

Abbreviate on second reference. PLT.

PRINCIPAL, PRINCIPLE

"Principal" used as an adjective means most important.

  • The principal investigator on the grant is Jim.

"Principal" used as a noun means a person in authority.

  • The principal will open the school every morning.

"Principle" is a noun and means a rule or code of conduct.

  • His principles will not be compromised.

PROFESSOR

Capitalize "professor" and other academic ranks only when they are part of titles preceding names. Lowercase when used as a description following a name. Do not abbreviate.

  • He studied with history Professor Bob Jones and English Professor Sarah Smith.
  • John Smith, professor of computer science

POWERPOINT

One word. Always capitalize both P’s.

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R

RACE

Capitalize names of races: African American, Caucasian, Hispanic, Black and White when referring to races. Beware of words, images, and situations that suggest that all or most members of a racial or ethnic group are the same.

ROOM NUMBERS

Uppercase when referring to specific rooms in specific buildings.

  • Hill University Center Room 346.

Hyphenate between wing and number.

  • E-200; L-103B

RSVP

One word. No periods. Uppercase. RSVP is the abbreviation for the French repondez s’il vous plait, meaning please reply.

S

SEASONS

Do not capitalize, unless personified.

  • The first day of spring is only a week away.
  • In just two weeks, Spring will work her magic upon the earth!

SEXUAL PREFERENCE

Sexual orientation is preferred.

SPRING, SPRING QUARTER

Lowercase references to seasons. Lowercase "quarter" and "semester" when not followed by a specific year.

STATE NAMES

Spell out the names of the 50 states when they stand alone in textual material. Any state name may be condensed, however, to fit typographical requirements for tabular material. Use the state abbreviations below in datelines and in text when used with the city. ZIP code abbreviations are in parentheses.

Ala. (AL) Kan. (KS) Nev. (NV) S.C. (SC) Ariz. (AZ) Ky. (KY) N.H. (NH) S.D. (SD) Ark. (AR) La. (LA) N.J. (NJ) Tenn. (TN) Calif. (CA) Md. (MD) N.M. (NM) Vt. (VT) Colo. (CO) Mass. (MA) N.Y. (NY) Va. (VA) Conn. (CT) Mich. (MI) N.C. (NC) Wash. (WA) Del. (DE) Minn. (MN) N.D. (ND) W.Va. (WV) Fla. (FL) Miss. (MS) Okla. (OK) Wis. (WI) Ga. (GA) Mo. (MO) Ore. (OR) Wyo. (WY) Ill. (IL) Mont. (MT) Pa. (PA) Ind. (IN) Neb. (NE) R.I. (RI)

Eight states are never abbreviated in datelines or text: Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas, Utah.

Use the two-letter Postal Service abbreviations only with full addresses, including Zip code.

Writing tips:

Use New York state to distinguish the state from New York City.

Use state of Washington or Washington state to distinguish the state from the District of Columbia. (Be aware that Washington State is the name of a University.)

STATEWIDE

One word.

STATIONARY/STATIONERY

Stationary means to standing still; not moving.

  • The market price has remained stationary for a week.

Stationery means writing paper.

  • I bought new stationery to write notes to my friends.

STUDENT CLASSIFICATIONS

Do not capitalize "freshman," "sophomore," "junior," or "senior."

  • He is a senior communications major.

Do capitalize class designations.

  • The Senior Class sponsored the lecture.

STUDENT GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATION

SGA on second reference.

SUMMER, SUMMER QUARTER

Lowercase references to seasons and academic periods.

SYSTEMWIDE

One word.

SYSTEM OFFICE

Capitalize the word "System," but not office.

  • System office

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T

TELEPHONE NUMBERS

If a publication is strictly for on-campus use, omit telephone area codes and prefixes and list extensions directly.

  • 66263

If the publication will be sent off campus, include area codes in parentheses and the exchange.

  • (205) 934-0186

For toll-free numbers, use "1-800-" or "(800)" in front of the seven-digit number.

  • (800) 934-0186

TERM

Lowercase "quarter" and "semester" when not followed by a specific year.

  • The fall semester, Spring Quarter 1997.

The preferred substitute for "quarter" and "semester" is "term."

THAT/WHICH

Use that and which to refer to inanimate objects and to animals without a name. That is used to introduce essential clauses. An essential clause cannot be cut without changing the meaning of the sentence—it restricts the meaning of the word or phrase that its absence would lead to a substantially different interpretation of what the author meant.

  • Greg remodeled the house that burned down Friday.

Which is used to introduce non-essential clauses. Nonessential clauses can be eliminated without altering the basic meaning of the sentence. A nonessential clause must be set off by commas.

  • The house, which Greg remodeled, burned down Friday.

THEATRE, THEATER

Use "theater" except in proper names, such as MCTC’s Department of Theatre or Story Theatre.

TEMPERATURES

Use figures. Use below, not a minus sign, for temperatures below zero.

  • It was 80 degrees in July and 30 below in October.

Fahrenheit temperatures are assumed and need not be designated as such. See the AP Stylebook for further treatment of Fahrenheit and Celsius.

TITLES

In contrast to correspondence style, formal titles should be printed lowercase when following a name. Appropriate words should still be uppercase when preceding the name.

  • John Jones, executive vice president and chief financial officer
  • Senior Vice President for University Development Tom Smith

TOLL FREE

Two words unless modifying a noun.

  • Students can call toll free anytime.
  • The toll-free number was inadvertently disconnected.

TOWARD

Not towards.

TRADEMARK SYMBOL - (TM) OR ™

 If you can't use a superscript, use parentheses (TM).

TRANSFER

Lowercase when referring to a student category.

U

UNDERGRADUATE

Lowercase when referring to a student classification.

UNDER WAY

Two words.

UNITED STATES, U.S.

May be used as a noun or an adjective. May be abbreviated when it is part of the name of an organization:

  • The U.S. Department of the Interior.

Avoid abbreviating on first reference when referring to the nation itself, although U.S. is acceptable as a second reference and in tables and headlines.

URL

Stands for "Universal Resource Locator." "World Wide Web address" or "Web address" is preferred.

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V

VERSUS

Use “v.” when abbreviating “versus.”

  • He’s the prosecutor in Smith v. Jones.

VICE PRESIDENT

Do not hyphenate. Capitalize only when it is used as a title before a person’s name.

VITA, VITAE

Vita is singular and vitae is plural. Use when referring to a biographical sketch, generally in conjunction with curriculum, especially when the information refers to academic history. Curriculum vita is the formal name for an academic's resume, curricula vitae is the plural designation.

  • Her curriculum vita was outstanding.

W

WEB-BASED

One word.  Lowercase "w" unless used at the beginning of a sentence.  Always hyphenated.

WEBSITE

One word.  Lowercase "w" unless used at the beginning of a sentence.

WORLD WIDE WEB, WEB, WWW

The World Wide Web is a global information repository application running via the Internet and attributed to Tim Berners-Lee. The formal name and its abbreviation (the Web) should be uppercase except in closed compounds such as webmaster and webcam.

WHO/WHOM

Who is the word when someone is the subject of the sentence, clause or phrase.

  • The woman who rented the room left the window open.
  • Who is there?

Whom is the word when someone is the object of a verb or preposition.

  • The man to whom the car was rented did not fill the gas tank. Whom do you serve?

WORK FORCE

Two words.

WORK-STUDY

Always hyphenate, whether used as a noun or an adjective.

WORLDWIDE

One word.

Y

YEARS

Use an "s" without an apostrophe to indicate spans of decades or centuries.

  • The 1890s, the ’80s, KCTCS was dedicated in 1997.

Years are the only exception to the general rule that numerical figures should not be used to start a sentence.

  • 1976 was a very good year.

Use an apostrophe to abbreviate class years.

  • She belonged to the class of ’72.

YOUTUBE

One word with a capital T in the middle.

Z

ZIP CODE

Use all-caps ZIP for Zoning Improvement Plan, but always lowercase the word code.

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